Stem Cell Transplant

Stem Cell Transplant


Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system. The lymph node system is made up of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits, groin, chest, and abdomen. The function of these nodes is to remove excess fluid from your body and produces immune cells, it is part of the body's germ-fighting network. Abnormal white blood cells become lymphoma cells. These lymphoma cells will multiply and collect in your lymph nodes. After some time, these cancerous cells will disturb your immune system.

Lymphomas can be divided into two categories, which are Hodgkin lymphomas and non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

Risk Factors

The following factors may increase your risk of developing lymphomas:

  • Diet high in meats and fat
  • Being exposed to certain pesticides
  • Age. Some types of lymphoma are more common in young adults, while others are most often diagnosed in people over 55.
  • Male. Males are slightly more likely to develop lymphoma than are females.
  • Impaired immune system. Lymphoma is more common in people with immune system diseases or in people who take drugs that suppress their immune system.
  • Infections. Some infections are associated with an increased risk of lymphoma, including the Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori infection.


  • Painless swelling of lymph nodes in your neck, armpits or groin
  • Fever
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Shortness of breath
  • Itchy skin
  • Rash

Treatment of Lymphomas

A lymph node biopsy in necessary to diagnose lymphoma. Other tests that can be done to know the stage of the lymphoma will include blood tests, bone marrow biopsies, CT scans or PET scans. Imaging tests like the PET Scan and CT Scan will show whether the lymphoma has spread to other parts of the body.

Treatment options

  • Chemotherapy
  • Chemotherapy and radiation
  • Biological therapies, such as antibodies
  • Stem cell transplant

If you suspect that you have or are at risk for lymphoma, talk with your doctor about detection and treatment. Depending on your physical condition, genetics, and medical history, you may be referred to a hematologist, a doctor who specializes in blood conditions.


Leukemia is cancer that occurs in your blood and bone marrow. It is caused when there is a production of abnormal white blood cells. White blood cells in our blood fight against infection. Bone marrow is the place where red blood cells and platelets are produced. But in leukemia, these abnormal white blood cells are not able to function as they should. Cancer cells in blood marrow disturbs the activity of the bone marrow.

Leukemia can be either acute or chronic. Chronic leukemia develops slowly over time. Acute leukemia requires immediate attention. Leukemia have two categories, lymphocytic or myelogenous. Lymphocytic leukemia happens when there is abnormal cell growth in the marrow cells. Lymphocytes is a type of white blood cell critical in the immune system. Whereas in myelogenous leukemia, abnormal cell growth happens in the marrow cells that mature and become red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

There are four broad classifications of leukemia:

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)

Leukemia can happen in adults and children. ALL is the most common type of leukemia in children, and AML is the second most common. The two most common adult leukemias are AML and CLL.

Research over many years in the treatment of ALL have greatly improved the prognosis for children diagnosed with ALL.


  1. Exposure to high levels of radiation
  2. Repeated exposure to certain chemicals (for example, benzene)
  3. Chemotherapy
  4. Down Syndrome
  5. A strong family history of leukemia

Symptoms may vary depending on the type and stage of leukemia, but the following are quite common:

  1. Fever, chills, night sweats and other flu-like symptoms
  2. Weakness and fatigue
  3. Swollen or bleeding gums
  4. Headaches
  5. Enlarged liver and spleen
  6. Swollen tonsils
  7. Bone pain
  8. Paleness
  9. Pinhead-size red spots on the skin
  10. Weight loss



Your doctor will ask you about any symptoms. Your doctor will conduct a complete blood test to determine if you have if you have any leukemic cells. Other health conditions can cause similar symptoms as leukemia. It’s important for the healthcare team to rule out other reasons for a health problem before making a diagnosis of leukemia.

Abnormal levels of white blood cells and abnormally low red blood cell or platelet counts can also indicate leukemia. If you do test positive for leukemia, your doctor will perform a biopsy of your bone marrow to determine which type you have.

Treatment options

Treatment depends on your age, general health, and type of leukemia. You might receive a combination of treatments that could include chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Patients with acute leukemia often undergo chemotherapy because this type of treatment targets fast-dividing cells. Many acute leukemia patients have responded successfully to treatment. On the other hand, because the cells divide more slowly in chronic leukemia, it is better treated with targeted therapies that attack slowly dividing cells as opposed to traditional chemotherapy that targets rapidly dividing cells.

The following tests are commonly used to rule out or diagnose leukemia. Many of the same tests used to diagnose cancer are used to find out the stage, which is how far the cancer has progressed. Your doctor may also order other tests to check your general health and to help plan your treatment.

Diagnostic tests

Health history and physical exam
Complete blood count (CBC)
Blood chemistry tests
Bleeding and clotting factors
Cytogenetic and molecular studies
Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy
Lumbar puncture
Lymph node biopsy

Staging and other tests

Blood chemistry tests
Chest x-ray
CT scan