Head & Neck Cancer

Head & Neck Cancers

Head and neck cancers include cancers of the nasopharnyx, oral cavity, lips, nose and paranasal sinuses, larynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, thyroid and salivary glands.

Malaysian National Cancer Registry Report from 2007-2011

9,419 cases of head and neck cancers
9.1% of all cancer cases
4th most common cancer
1.2 times more common in males than females

Head & Neck Cancers

Risk Factors

is the single largest risk factor.
85% of head & neck cancers are linked to tobacco use.

Alcohol Consumption
75% of head & neck cancers are linked to combined use of tobacco & alcohol.

Salt-Cured Food
High intake of salt-cured food

Tobacco & Betel Nut Chewing

Certain Illnesses

  • Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

5 Main Types of Head & Neck Cancers

  • Nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer
  • Oral and oropharyngeal cancer
  • Salivary gland cancer
  • Nasopharyngeal cancer
  • Laryngeal and hypopharyngal cancer


The most common symptoms are swelling and a sore that doesn’t heal.

Other Common Symptoms:

  • A lump or mass in the nose, neck or throat, with or without pain
  • Frequent nose bleeds or unusual discharge
  • Ear pain or trouble hearing
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Change in voice or hoarseness
  • Headaches
  • Persistent sore throat
  • Nasal obstruction or persistent obstruction
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • A red or white patch in the mouth
  • Frequent coughing
  • Trouble breathing

If you have these symptoms, please consult an ENT surgeon immediately.
It is important to consult an ENT surgeon immediately

Diagnosis for Throat Cancer

Treatment Options

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Targeted therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Chemotherapy